Placental Chain/Net Track Settings
Non-primate Placental Mammal Genomes, Chain and Net Alignments   (All Comparative Genomics tracks)

Maximum display mode:       Reset to defaults   
Select views (help):
Chains       Nets      
Select subtracks by clade and species:
 All Clade Euarchontoglires  Laurasiatheria  Afrotheria 
Guinea Pig 
Chinese Hamster 
White Rhinoceros 
List subtracks: only selected/visible    all    ()
  Species↓1 Views↓2 Clade↓3   Track Name↓4  
 Mouse  Chains  Euarchontoglires  Mouse (Dec. 2011 (GRCm38/mm10)) Chained Alignments   schema 
 Mouse  Nets  Euarchontoglires  Mouse (Dec. 2011 (GRCm38/mm10)) Alignment Net   schema 
 Rat  Nets  Euarchontoglires  Rat (Nov. 2004 (Baylor 3.4/rn4)) Alignment Net   schema 
 Cow  Nets  Laurasiatheria  Cow (Oct. 2011 (Baylor Btau_4.6.1/bosTau7)) Alignment Net   schema 
 Pig  Nets  Laurasiatheria  Pig (Nov. 2009 (SGSC Sscrofa9.2/susScr2)) Alignment Net   schema 
 Dog  Nets  Laurasiatheria  Dog (Sep. 2011 (Broad CanFam3.1/canFam3)) Alignment Net   schema 
 Elephant  Nets  Afrotheria  Elephant (Jul. 2009 (Broad/loxAfr3)) Alignment Net   schema 


Chain Track

The chain track shows alignments of human (Feb. 2009 (GRCh37/hg19)) to other genomes using a gap scoring system that allows longer gaps than traditional affine gap scoring systems. It can also tolerate gaps in both human and the other genome simultaneously. These "double-sided" gaps can be caused by local inversions and overlapping deletions in both species.

The chain track displays boxes joined together by either single or double lines. The boxes represent aligning regions. Single lines indicate gaps that are largely due to a deletion in the human assembly or an insertion in the other assembly. Double lines represent more complex gaps that involve substantial sequence in both species. This may result from inversions, overlapping deletions, an abundance of local mutation, or an unsequenced gap in one species. In cases where multiple chains align over a particular region of the other genome, the chains with single-lined gaps are often due to processed pseudogenes, while chains with double-lined gaps are more often due to paralogs and unprocessed pseudogenes.

In the "pack" and "full" display modes, the individual feature names indicate the chromosome, strand, and location (in thousands) of the match for each matching alignment.

Net Track

The net track shows the best human/other chain for every part of the other genome. It is useful for finding orthologous regions and for studying genome rearrangement. The human sequence used in this annotation is from the Feb. 2009 (GRCh37/hg19) assembly.

Display Conventions and Configuration

Chain Track

By default, the chains to chromosome-based assemblies are colored based on which chromosome they map to in the aligning organism. To turn off the coloring, check the "off" button next to: Color track based on chromosome.

To display only the chains of one chromosome in the aligning organism, enter the name of that chromosome (e.g. chr4) in box next to: Filter by chromosome.

Net Track

In full display mode, the top-level (level 1) chains are the largest, highest-scoring chains that span this region. In many cases gaps exist in the top-level chain. When possible, these are filled in by other chains that are displayed at level 2. The gaps in level 2 chains may be filled by level 3 chains and so forth.

In the graphical display, the boxes represent ungapped alignments; the lines represent gaps. Click on a box to view detailed information about the chain as a whole; click on a line to display information about the gap. The detailed information is useful in determining the cause of the gap or, for lower level chains, the genomic rearrangement.

Individual items in the display are categorized as one of four types (other than gap):

  • Top - the best, longest match. Displayed on level 1.
  • Syn - line-ups on the same chromosome as the gap in the level above it.
  • Inv - a line-up on the same chromosome as the gap above it, but in the opposite orientation.
  • NonSyn - a match to a chromosome different from the gap in the level above.


Chain track

Transposons that have been inserted since the human/other split were removed from the assemblies. The abbreviated genomes were aligned with lastz, and the transposons were added back in. The resulting alignments were converted into axt format using the lavToAxt program. The axt alignments were fed into axtChain, which organizes all alignments between a single human chromosome and a single chromosome from the other genome into a group and creates a kd-tree out of the gapless subsections (blocks) of the alignments. A dynamic program was then run over the kd-trees to find the maximally scoring chains of these blocks. The following matrix was used:


Chains scoring below a minimum score of '3000' were discarded; the remaining chains are displayed in this track. The linear gap matrix used with axtChain:

tableSize    11
smallSize   111
position  1   2   3   11  111  2111  12111  32111   72111  152111  252111
qGap    350 425 450  600  900  2900  22900  57900  117900  217900  317900
tGap    350 425 450  600  900  2900  22900  57900  117900  217900  317900
bothGap 750 825 850 1000 1300  3300  23300  58300  118300  218300  318300
See also: lastz parameters used in these alignments, and chain minimum score and gap parameters used in these alignments.

Net track

Chains were derived from lastz alignments, using the methods described on the chain tracks description pages, and sorted with the highest-scoring chains in the genome ranked first. The program chainNet was then used to place the chains one at a time, trimming them as necessary to fit into sections not already covered by a higher-scoring chain. During this process, a natural hierarchy emerged in which a chain that filled a gap in a higher-scoring chain was placed underneath that chain. The program netSyntenic was used to fill in information about the relationship between higher- and lower-level chains, such as whether a lower-level chain was syntenic or inverted relative to the higher-level chain. The program netClass was then used to fill in how much of the gaps and chains contained Ns (sequencing gaps) in one or both species and how much was filled with transposons inserted before and after the two organisms diverged.


Lastz (previously known as blastz) was developed at Pennsylvania State University by Minmei Hou, Scott Schwartz, Zheng Zhang, and Webb Miller with advice from Ross Hardison.

Lineage-specific repeats were identified by Arian Smit and his RepeatMasker program.

The axtChain program was developed at the University of California at Santa Cruz by Jim Kent with advice from Webb Miller and David Haussler.

The browser display and database storage of the chains and nets were created by Robert Baertsch and Jim Kent.

The chainNet, netSyntenic, and netClass programs were developed at the University of California Santa Cruz by Jim Kent.


Chiaromonte F, Yap VB, Miller W. Scoring pairwise genomic sequence alignments. Pac Symp Biocomput. 2002:115-26.

Kent WJ, Baertsch R, Hinrichs A, Miller W, Haussler D. Evolution's cauldron: Duplication, deletion, and rearrangement in the mouse and human genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 30;100(20):11484-9.

Schwartz S, Kent WJ, Smit A, Zhang Z, Baertsch R, Hardison RC, Haussler D, Miller W. Human-Mouse Alignments with BLASTZ. Genome Res. 2003 Jan;13(1):103-7.