Human Gene TUBB (uc011gui.2) Description and Page Index
  Description: Homo sapiens tubulin, beta class I (TUBB), mRNA.
RefSeq Summary (NM_178014): This gene encodes a beta tubulin protein. This protein forms a dimer with alpha tubulin and acts as a structural component of microtubules. Mutations in this gene cause cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple splice variants. There are multiple pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014].
Transcript (Including UTRs)
   Position: chr6_mann_hap4:2,036,251-2,041,289 Size: 5,039 Total Exon Count: 4 Strand: +
Coding Region
   Position: chr6_mann_hap4:2,036,378-2,040,268 Size: 3,891 Coding Exon Count: 4 

Page IndexSequence and LinksUniProtKB CommentsGenetic AssociationsCTDMicroarray
RNA StructureProtein StructureOther SpeciesmRNA DescriptionsPathwaysOther Names
Model InformationMethods
Data last updated: 2013-06-14

+  Sequence and Links to Tools and Databases
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-  Comments and Description Text from UniProtKB
DESCRIPTION: RecName: Full=Tubulin beta chain; AltName: Full=Tubulin beta-5 chain;
FUNCTION: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
SUBUNIT: May interact with RNABP10 (By similarity). Interacts with MX1 (By similarity). Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with PIFO.
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.
TISSUE SPECIFICITY: Ubiquitously expressed with highest levels in spleen, thymus and immature brain.
DOMAIN: The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
PTM: Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable).
SIMILARITY: Belongs to the tubulin family.
WEB RESOURCE: Name=Wikipedia; Note=Tubulin entry; URL="";

-  Genetic Association Studies of Complex Diseases and Disorders
  Genetic Association Database: TUBB
CDC HuGE Published Literature: TUBB
Positive Disease Associations: brain hemorrhage , Multiple Sclerosis
Related Studies:
  1. brain hemorrhage
    Navarro-Nunez, L. et al. 2007, The association of the beta1-tubulin Q43P polymorphism with intracerebral hemorrhage in men, Haematologica 2007 92(4) 513-8. [PubMed 17488662]
    This is the first evidence linking the TUBB1 Q43P platelet polymorphism with hemorrhagic stroke in humans.
  2. Multiple Sclerosis
    Sergio E Baranzini et al. Human molecular genetics 2009, Genome-wide association analysis of susceptibility and clinical phenotype in multiple sclerosis., Human molecular genetics. [PubMed 19010793]

-  Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD)
  The following chemicals interact with this gene
  • C517041 (4-amino-1,4-dihydro-3-(2-pyridyl)-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazole)copper(II)
  • C016614 1-nitronaphthalene
  • C511295 2,2,4,4-tetrabromodiphenyl ether
  • C029497 2,3-bis(3'-hydroxybenzyl)butyrolactone
  • C440850 2,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene
  • C030370 2-methoxy-5-(2',3',4'-trimethoxyphenyl)tropone
  • D015123 7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide
  • C547126 AZM551248
  • D000117 Acetylglucosamine
  • D000643 Ammonium Chloride
          more ... click here to view the complete list

-  Microarray Expression Data
Expression ratio colors:

GNF Expression Atlas 2 Data from U133A and GNF1H Chips


GNF Expression Atlas 1 Human Data on Affy U95 Chips


-  mRNA Secondary Structure of 3' and 5' UTRs
RegionFold EnergyBasesEnergy/Base
Display As
5' UTR -30.10127-0.237 Picture PostScript Text
3' UTR -298.701021-0.293 Picture PostScript Text

The RNAfold program from the Vienna RNA Package is used to perform the secondary structure predictions and folding calculations. The estimated folding energy is in kcal/mol. The more negative the energy, the more secondary structure the RNA is likely to have.

-  Protein Domain and Structure Information
  InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure
IPR013838 - Beta-tubulin_BS
IPR002453 - Beta_tubulin
IPR008280 - Tub_FtsZ_C
IPR000217 - Tubulin
IPR018316 - Tubulin/FtsZ_2-layer-sand-dom
IPR023123 - Tubulin_C
IPR017975 - Tubulin_CS
IPR003008 - Tubulin_FtsZ_GTPase

Pfam Domains:
PF00091 - Tubulin/FtsZ family, GTPase domain
PF03953 - Tubulin/FtsZ family, C-terminal domain

SCOP Domains:
52490 - Tubulin nucleotide-binding domain-like
55307 - Tubulin C-terminal domain-like

Protein Data Bank (PDB) 3-D Structure

- X-ray Chimera

- X-ray Chimera
Chimera help

ModBase Predicted Comparative 3D Structure on P07437
The pictures above may be empty if there is no ModBase structure for the protein. The ModBase structure frequently covers just a fragment of the protein. You may be asked to log onto ModBase the first time you click on the pictures. It is simplest after logging in to just click on the picture again to get to the specific info on that model.

-  Orthologous Genes in Other Species
  Orthologies between human, mouse, and rat are computed by taking the best BLASTP hit, and filtering out non-syntenic hits. For more distant species reciprocal-best BLASTP hits are used. Note that the absence of an ortholog in the table below may reflect incomplete annotations in the other species rather than a true absence of the orthologous gene.
MouseRatZebrafishD. melanogasterC. elegansS. cerevisiae
Genome BrowserGenome BrowserNo orthologNo orthologNo orthologNo ortholog
Gene DetailsGene Details    
Gene SorterGene Sorter    
Jackson LabRGD    
Protein Sequence     

-  Descriptions from all associated GenBank mRNAs
  Z36874 - H.sapiens (xs127) mRNA, 106bp.
AK303227 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ52378 complete cds, highly similar to Tubulin beta-7 chain.
BC020946 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:26663 IMAGE:4795692), complete cds.
AK302195 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ52029 complete cds, highly similar to Tubulin beta-7 chain.
AK297638 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ53063 complete cds, highly similar to Tubulin beta-7 chain.
BC085007 - Homo sapiens cDNA clone IMAGE:6598943, **** WARNING: chimeric clone ****.
AK316265 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ79164 complete cds, highly similar to Tubulin beta-7 chain.
AK098772 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ25906 fis, clone CBR04603, highly similar to TUBULIN BETA-5 CHAIN.
BC103746 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:117247 IMAGE:6503977), complete cds.
AF141349 - Homo sapiens beta-tubulin mRNA, complete cds.
AF070600 - Homo sapiens clone 24464 beta-tubulin mRNA, complete cds.
BC000222 - Homo sapiens mRNA similar to tubulin, beta 5 (cDNA clone IMAGE:3352415).
BC070326 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:88329 IMAGE:6698679), complete cds.
BC002347 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:8668 IMAGE:2964461), complete cds.
BC007605 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:15683 IMAGE:3350604), complete cds.
AB062393 - Homo sapiens OK/SW-cl.56 mRNA for beta 5-tubulin, complete cds.
BC001938 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:4101 IMAGE:2820585), complete cds.
BC005838 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:2440 IMAGE:2820585), complete cds.
AF070561 - Homo sapiens clone 24703 beta-tubulin mRNA, complete cds.
AF070593 - Homo sapiens clones 24609 and 24716 beta-tubulin mRNA, complete cds.
BC013374 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:16435 IMAGE:3946253), complete cds.
BC021909 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:15853 IMAGE:3509417), complete cds.
BC019924 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:30201 IMAGE:4998571), complete cds.
BC062532 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:3637650), complete cds.
BC008791 - Homo sapiens cDNA clone IMAGE:3617988, **** WARNING: chimeric clone ****.
AK297489 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ53012 complete cds, highly similar to Tubulin beta-7 chain.
DQ891742 - Synthetic construct clone IMAGE:100004372; FLH180257.01X; RZPDo839A03134D tubulin, beta (TUBB) gene, encodes complete protein.
DQ891828 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100004458; FLH263550.01X; RZPDo839B02134D tubulin, beta (TUBB) gene, encodes complete protein.
DQ894920 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens clone IMAGE:100009380; FLH180253.01L; RZPDo839A03133D tubulin, beta (TUBB) gene, encodes complete protein.
AB463327 - Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF1KB9038, Homo sapiens TBB5 gene for Tubulin beta chain, without stop codon, in Flexi system.
CU676482 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100019426 5' read TUBB mRNA.
V00599 - Human mRNA fragment encoding beta-tubulin. (from clone D-beta-1).
AK298889 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ50617 complete cds, highly similar to Tubulin beta-7 chain.
AK316316 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ79215 complete cds, highly similar to Tubulin beta-7 chain.
AK302314 - Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ56903 complete cds, highly similar to Tubulin beta-7 chain.
AK309684 - Homo sapiens cDNA, FLJ99725.
BC001896 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:3544415), partial cds.
DQ457058 - Homo sapiens XTP3TPA-transactivated protein 1 (XTP3TPATP1) mRNA, XTP3TPATP1-S allele, complete cds.
BC029323 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:4705792).
BC015889 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:3922098), partial cds.
CU687552 - Synthetic construct Homo sapiens gateway clone IMAGE:100023005 5' read TUBB mRNA.
BC001002 - Homo sapiens tubulin, beta, mRNA (cDNA clone IMAGE:3447696).
EF036509 - Homo sapiens beta-4 tubulin mRNA, partial cds.
DQ599097 - Homo sapiens piRNA piR-37163, complete sequence.
DQ595633 - Homo sapiens piRNA piR-61745, complete sequence.
DQ584144 - Homo sapiens piRNA piR-51256, complete sequence.
DQ580576 - Homo sapiens piRNA piR-48688, complete sequence.
DQ578159 - Homo sapiens piRNA piR-46271, complete sequence.

-  Biochemical and Signaling Pathways
  KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
hsa04540 - Gap junction
hsa05130 - Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection

-  Other Names for This Gene
  Alternate Gene Symbols: NM_178014, NP_821133, OK/SW-cl.56, P05218, P07437, Q8WUC1, Q9CY33, TBB5_HUMAN, TUBB5
UCSC ID: uc011gui.2
RefSeq Accession: NM_178014
Protein: P07437 (aka TBB5_HUMAN